By P. Narayanasamy
The bacterial and wall-less phytoplasamal pathogens are relatively a lot smaller than fungal pathogens. The morphological features of bacterial pathogens have restricted software for his or her detection and identity. accordingly, cultural, biochemical and physiological features must be made up our minds for the detection and id of micro organism as much as generic/species point. Immunoassays were proven to be hugely effective for detection, identity and differentiation of isolates, lines and/ or pathovars of bacterial species. program of varied nucleic acid-based strategies in accordance with hybridization of probes with complementary sequences of objective bacterial pathogen DNA and / or amplification of detailed sequences of the objective bacterial species has been established to yield trustworthy and reproducible effects quickly. The nonculturable phytoplasmas need to be detected in crops, planting fabrics and the vectors considering the transmission of those disease-causing brokers from plant to plant. they've been pointed out and categorized based mostly at the recommendations in accordance with the genomic nucleic acid features. the excellent details awarded during this quantity, following large literature seek is aimed to supply all that's required through the researchers, lecturers and scholars of varied disciplines of organic sciences, as well as the extension pathologists, and body of workers of plant quarantines and certification courses. The inclusion of a variety of protocols is the original characteristic of this quantity allowing the scientists to settle on the tools for his or her investigations.
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Additional resources for Microbial Plant Pathogens-Detection and Disease Diagnosis:: Bacterial and Phytoplasmal Pathogens, Vol.2
They have extra-chromosomal DNA governing some characteristics such as pathogenicity, resistance to chemicals and antibiotics and tumor formation. Plasmids can pass from one bacterial cell to another easily. No other organelle is present in the bacteria as in the case of eukaryotes. The bacterial cells are much smaller in size compared with fungal cells and may measure about 1 mm in diameter, whereas the fungal spores on an average may have diameter varying from 50 to 200 mm. They are simple in structure with different shapes like spherical, ellipsoidal, rod-shaped, spiral, filamentous or comma-shaped.
Note the presence of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the xylem vessels (Courtesy of Machado 2009; Agronomic Institute of Campinas, Citrus Research Center, Brazil) 12 2 Detection of Bacterial and Phytoplasmal Pathogens plant materials. Phytopathogenic bacteria induce hypersensitive reaction (HR) in leaf mesophyll tissues, while saprophytic bacteria cannot induce such a response when inoculated on plants. Hence, production of visible necrotic lesions at the site of inoculation of a bacterial species, not only indicates the presence of the target bacteria, but also its pathogenicity on the plant species.
The first run extracted the lipids from whole bacterial cells. After drying the plates well, bacterial cells on the plate were scraped out. The plate was developed again at the same direction using another solvent, chloroform-methanol-water (CMW, 60:25:4, v/v/v) for about 90 min at 25°C in an incubator. Ninhydrin was sprayed after drying the plate well, followed by heating at 100°C for 10 min for the development of colored spots and photographed. Several bacterial pathogens belonging to Agrobacterium, Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas were identified by employing this technique.
Microbial Plant Pathogens-Detection and Disease Diagnosis:: Bacterial and Phytoplasmal Pathogens, Vol.2 by P. Narayanasamy